The Ministry of Health released the "Maternal and Child Health Literacy-Basic Knowledge and Skills" on the 8th, clarifying the basic knowledge and skills that women should master in the special physiological period of pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Proposed relevant health guidance for prominent issues such as inappropriate infant and young child feeding. The "Maternal and Child Health Literacy-Basic Knowledge and Skills" is divided into three parts: basic knowledge and concepts, healthy lifestyles and behaviors, and basic skills. The content involves maternal nutrition, psychology, exercise, weight control, delivery methods, and puerperium. Nursing, breastfeeding, newborn health care, etc. proposed that "smoking and passive smoking can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, low birth weight", "natural birth is the least harm to mothers and infants, the most ideal delivery method" and "breast milk is the most ideal for infants Natural food promotes the concept of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months ". In order to implement the "Outline of Chinese Women's Development (2011-2020)" and "Outline of Chinese Child Development (2011-2020)" promulgated by the State Council, further popularize the basic knowledge and skills of maternal and infant health care, improve maternal health literacy, and improve the quality of the birth population The Ministry of Health has organized the "Maternal and Child Health Literacy-Basic Knowledge and Skills". This is also an extension of the "Chinese Citizens' Health Literacy-Basic Knowledge and Skills (Trial)" issued by the Ministry of Health in 2008.
"Maternal and Child Health Literacy"
I. Basic knowledge and philosophy (1) Promoting the health of mothers and babies Improving the quality of the birth population is the social responsibility of every citizen. (2) Both men and women who are about to get married should go to the health care institution to receive pre-marital health care services. (3) Pregnancy and childbirth are physiological processes of human reproduction. Plan and prepare should be made. Couples planning to give birth should go to a health care facility to receive pre-pregnancy care. (4) Smoking and passive smoking can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, and low birth weight. (5) Women and pregnant women who are about to become pregnant should avoid contact with toxic and harmful substances in their living and professional environment and avoid close contact with pets. (6) Supplementing folic acid from 3 months before pregnancy to 3 months before pregnancy can prevent fetal neural tube defects. (7) The content of prenatal examination mainly includes measurement of blood pressure, weight, palace height, fetal position, fetal heart rate blood, urine test and B-ultrasound. (8) Hepatitis B, syphilis and AIDS tests should be done for the first prenatal examination. (9) Prenatal diagnosis can detect certain congenital defects and hereditary diseases of the fetus. Pregnant women over 35 years of age are pregnant women and should have a prenatal diagnosis. (10) The normal blood pressure of a pregnant woman is a systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg. (11) The hemoglobin of pregnant women should not be lower than 110 g / L. (12) During pregnancy, if you have high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting, unclear vision, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, ruptured membranes (water breaks), abnormal fetal movements, etc., you should go to a health care institution immediately. (13) 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy Screening for gestational diabetes is recommended. (14) Full term delivery refers to delivery between 37 weeks and 42 weeks of pregnancy. (15) Spontaneous childbirth is the most ideal birthing method with the least damage to mothers and infants. (16) Symptoms of labor in labor are: regular, painful, and gradually increasing uterine contractions, each lasting 30 seconds or more, at intervals of 5 minutes to 6 minutes. (17) In all stages of pregnancy and pregnancy, pregnant women may experience different levels of psychological changes. Relaxing mood can help prevent pregnancy and postpartum depression. (18) Breast milk is the ideal natural food for infants. Promote exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Infants under the age of 1 should not consume fresh milk. (19) The birth weight of normal term newborns is between 2500 g and 4,000 g. More than 4,000 g are huge infants, and less than 2500 g are low birth weight infants. (20) Newborns should be screened for newborn diseases after birth. (21) Newborns may experience physiological weight loss, which generally does not exceed 10% of birth weight, and returns to birth weight 7 to 10 days after birth. (22) Physiological jaundice of newborns usually appear within 2 to 3 days after birth and gradually fade away from 7 to 10 days. (23) The time of neonatal umbilical cord detachment is generally 1 to 2 weeks after birth. (24) The weight of a newborn at full moon should be at least 600 grams more than that at birth. (25) It should be ensured that the newborn sleeps adequately. The sleep time in a day is generally 16-20 hours. (26) Infants from birth should be supplemented with 400-800 IU of vitamin D daily under the guidance of a doctor. Normal term newborns generally do not need calcium supplements within 6 months after birth. (27) Parents or caregivers should communicate with the baby frequently to meet the baby's various needs in a timely manner. (28) Infant deciduous teeth usually germinate between 4 and 10 months after birth. (29) Infants should be vaccinated in accordance with the immunization program after birth. (30) The ankles of infants and young children are generally closed from 12 months to 18 months after birth. Second, healthy lifestyle and behavior (31) Pregnant women should insist on brushing their teeth sooner or later, and gargle after meals. (32) Pregnant women should ban smoking and alcohol. It is best not to wear high heels, not to dye hair, or to wear makeup. It is better to be comfortable. (33) Pregnant women should exercise more than 30 minutes a day. (34) Pregnant women should undergo at least 5 prenatal examinations and be hospitalized for delivery. The first prenatal check-up should be before 12 weeks of pregnancy. (35) Pregnant women should ensure a reasonable diet and balanced nutrition. Under the guidance of a doctor, supplement appropriate amounts of nutrients such as iron and calcium. (36) The appropriate intake of calcium in the second trimester is 1000 mg per day. The second trimester and lactation are 1200 mg per day. (37) Pregnant women should maintain proper weight gain. Pregnant women with normal weight before pregnancy gain about 12 kg during pregnancy. (38) A mother should increase the intake of fish, poultry, eggs, meat, and fresh vegetables and fruits in an appropriate amount during breastfeeding. (39) Maternity should develop good personal hygiene habits. Promote window ventilation, brushing teeth, bathing, etc. (40) Breastfeeding should be started within 1 hour after the birth of the newborn. Early contact, early sucking, early opening of milk. Breast feeding on demand. (41) From 6 months after birth, babies need to be gradually supplemented with iron-rich paste-like food. (42) Infants can continue breastfeeding until they are 2 years old or older after adding complementary foods. (Forty-three) Around 42 days after giving birth, both the mother and baby should undergo a medical examination. (44) Babies should undergo a medical examination at the age of 3, 6, 8, and 12 months. (Forty-five) Female employees with infants under one year of age can enjoy breastfeeding (including artificial feeding) two times during each working hour for 30 minutes each. Third, the basic skills (46) Remember the last menstrual period. Learn to calculate the due date. (47) Pregnant women generally start conscious fetal movement at 18-20 weeks of pregnancy. In the third trimester, you should learn how to count fetal movement. (48) Maternal illness should see a doctor promptly and take medication under the guidance of a doctor. When emergency medical assistance is needed, dial 120 emergency number. (49) Breastfeeding women should take effective contraceptive measures. (50) Non-dairy foods added to babies should be diversified. Pay attention to less sugar, no salt, no seasoning. (51) The infant's chewing ability should be exercised from 7 months to 8 months after birth. 10 months to 12 months can train the baby to eat with a spoon. (52) Infants whose body temperature exceeds 38.5 ° C need to take appropriate cooling measures under the guidance of a doctor. (53) Infants with diarrhea do not need fasting, can continue breastfeeding, and replenish fluids in time to avoid dehydration. (Fifty-four) Counting the number of breaths can identify pneumonia early. In a quiet state, the number of breaths of infants from 2 days to 2 months after birth should not exceed 60 breaths / minute, and from 2 months to 12 months should not exceed 50 breaths / minute. (55) Avoid accidental injuries such as falls, burns, suffocation, poisoning, electric shock, and drowning.